Design and Implementation of Online Hostel Management System - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2023)

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE HOSTEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

BY

AYAKA AKOLO EMMANUEL (2031100011)

A Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Of Bachelor of Science In Department Of Computer Science, Federal University Lafia.

AUGUST, 2015

ii

Declaration This project is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university. No part of this project may be reproduced without the prior written permission of the author and/or Federal University Lafia.

AYAKA AKOLO EMMANUEL

Date:

(Signature)

iii

Approval This is to certify that AYAKA AKOLO EMMANUEL; 2031100011 undertook this research work DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE HOSTEL MANGEMENT SYSTEM and meets the requirements for submission to the Department of Computer science Federal University Lafia, in partial fulfilment for the award of Bachelor of science (B.Sc.) Computer Science Degree 2015.

……………………………… Agushaka Jeffery O. Project Supervisor

…...………………… Date

……………………………… Professor D.N CHOJI Head of Department

…...………………… Date

……………………………… Professor S.B Junaidu External Examiner

…...………………… Date

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Dedication To the Lord God Almighty who bestowed to me the knowledge and wisdom used in carrying out this project research, and to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Ayaka E.A of Nasarawa State Polytechnic Lafia, and to who will ever desire to explore the field of technology and make the most of it.

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Abstract Managing the student’s accommodation application process at College of Agriculture Lafia is a complex and time-sensitive task. This research work deals with the problems of managing and allocating hostels to students in College of Agriculture Lafia and to avoid the problems which occur when carried out manually. The aim of this research work “Online Hostel Management System” is to develop a web based system with a central database that will automatically allocate rooms to students, manage records related to the hostel, the system designed will keep track of all the available hostel rooms, their occupants and fund generated from hostel fee. Information for this research work was collected from two forms of data which are primary and secondary data. These are done by semi structured interviews and exploitation of the services of the library from textbooks, journals, internet and other materials for purpose of better understanding. The new system was implemented using PHP and MySQL. The result of the research is a Hostel Management and Allocation System for College of Agriculture Lafia.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ ii APPROVAL .................................................................................................................................. iii DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................... iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ x ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................ x LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 1 1.1

BACKGROUND OF STUDY ......................................................................................... 1

1.2

BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE COLLEGE ...................................... 1

1.3

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ............................................................................... 3

1.4

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ................................................................... 3

1.5

SCOPE OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................ 3

1.6

LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................................ 4

1.7

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ................................................................................. 4

1.8

DEFINITION OF TERMS ............................................................................................... 4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................. 6 2.1

DEFINITION OF HOSTEL ............................................................................................. 6

2.2

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF HOSTEL ............................................................. 6

2.3

STUDENT HOUSING IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS ............................. 7

2.4

INFORMATION SYSTEMS ........................................................................................... 8

2.5

COLLEGE MANAGEMENT .......................................................................................... 9

2.6

STUDENT MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................ 11

2.7

CURRENT SYSTEM AT COLLEGE OF AGRIC LAFIA .......................................... 12

2.8

OTHER RELATED WORKS ........................................................................................ 13

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................... 16 3.1

THE METHODOLOGY FOR THIS WORK ................................................................ 16

3.1.2 3.2

ADVANTAGES OF OBJECT ORIENTED METHODOLOGY .......................... 16

SYSTEM ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 17

3.2.1

ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM .......................................................... 17

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3.2.2

ADVANTAGES OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM .................................................. 17

3.2.3

DISADVANTAGES OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM ............................................ 17

3.2.4

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED ................... 18

3.2.5

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROPOSED SYSTEM ............................................ 18

3.2.6

ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM ........................................................ 19

3.2.7

ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM ................................................ 19

3.2.8

DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM .......................................... 19

3.3

DATA COLLECTION METHOD................................................................................. 20

3.3.1

PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA ........................................................................... 20

3.3.2

SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA ..................................................................... 20

3.4

SYSTEM DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION ................................................................ 20

3.4.1

DATAFLOW DIAGRAM ...................................................................................... 21

3.4.2

ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL ..................................................................... 24

3.4.3

USE CASE MODEL............................................................................................... 26

3.5

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 27

3.5.1

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 28

3.5.2

INPUT REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................... 28

3.5.3

OUTPUT REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................. 28

3.5.4

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ......................................... 28

3.6

TABLE SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................ 29

3.7

DESIGN TOOLS FOR THE PROJECT ........................................................................ 32

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ........................................ 35 4.1

ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 35

4.2

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ........................................................................................ 35

4.2.1

THE HOME PAGE................................................................................................. 36

4.2.2

THE USER’S LOGIN PAGE ................................................................................. 37

4.2.3

THE STUDENTS MODULE ................................................................................. 38

4.2.4

APPLICATION MODULE .................................................................................... 39

4.2.5

VIEW APPLICATION MODULE ......................................................................... 40

4.2.6

STUDENT’S PROFILE MODULE ....................................................................... 41

4.2.7

CHANGE PASSWORD MODULE ....................................................................... 42

4.2.8

THE ADMIN MODULE ........................................................................................ 43

4.2.9

HOSTEL APPLICATION/ APPROVAL PAGE ................................................... 44

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4.2.10

HOSTEL MODULE ........................................................................................... 45

4.2.11

VIEW HOSTEL .................................................................................................. 46

4.2.12

ADD ROOMS ..................................................................................................... 47

4.2.13

VIEW ROOMS ................................................................................................... 48

4.2.14

VIEW STUDENTS PAGE.................................................................................. 49

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ............................................................... 50 5.1

SUMMARY ................................................................................................................... 50

5.2

REVIEW OF ACHIEVEMENT .................................................................................... 51

5.3

AREAS OF APPLICATION ......................................................................................... 51

5.4

CONTRIBUTION TO THE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE .............................................. 51

5.5

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES ................................................................. 51

5.6

CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 52

5.7

RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................. 52

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 53 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................... 54

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List of Tables Table 1: Student’s Data Table………………………………………………………………….30 Table 2: programme table……………………………………………………………………....30 Table 3: hostel table…………………………………………………………………………….31 Table 4: Room table…………………………………………………………………………….31 Table 5: Fees structure table…………………………………………………………………….32

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List of Figures Figure 3.1 Context DFD…………………………………………………………………22 Figure 3.2: Level 1 DFD………………………………………………………………....23 Figure 3.3: Level 2 DFD………………………………………………………………....24 Figure 3.4: Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)………………………………………...25 Figure 3.5: Use case diagram…………………………………………………………….27 Figure 4.1: The homepage……………………………………………………………….36 Figure 4.2: The user's login page………………………………………………………...37 Figure 4.3: The Students Module………………………………………………………..38 Figure 4.4: Application Module…………………………………………………………39 Figure 4.5: View Application Module…………………………………………………...40 Figure 4.6: Student's Profile Module…………………………………………………….41 Figure 4.7: Change Password Module…………………………………………………...42 Figure 4.8: The Admin Module………………………………………………………….43 Figure 4.9: Hostel Application/Approval Page………………………………………….44 Figure 4.10: Hostel Module……………………………………………………………..45 Figure 4.11: View Hostel……………………………………………………………….46 Figure 4.12: Add Rooms……………………………………………………………….47 Figure 4.13: View Rooms………………………………………………………………48 Figure 4.14: View Student's Page………………………………………………………49

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Acknowledgements I want to first of all thank the Almighty God for granting me good health and protection throughout my stay in Federal University Lafia most especially in the course of this research work. Glory be to God. The completion of this project was possible, thanks to the cooperation and support of a number of people, for their inestimable investment in my education; God will surely reward you and will help me not to fail you. To my project supervisor, Mr Agushaka Jeffrey O. apart from accepting the noble task of supervising my project work, you have been like a father to me, thanks for everything. To the head of department Computer science, Federal university Lafia Prof. D.N Choji, you have been a daddy all the way, I really do appreciate your words of encourage, advice and the love shown to us, may the almighty God richly bless you. To all the lecturers of Computer Science department. Thanks for impacting the best of your knowledge into me. I would also like to express my appreciation to Mr. Alaku Habila Akolo, for his support, advice and encouragement throughout my stay in Federal University lafia. I would also like to thank my colleagues and friends Joseph Ani, Yammu Abdon, Prince Anyebe, Hauwa Mohammed, Lawal Godwin, Nkom Odock, Jimoh Tope, Alhaji Lawal Hamza Rabiu, Daje Jesse Jonathan for their friendship and encouragements. To my siblings, Blessing, Joshua (slim), Benjamin (yungswag), Adigidzi, Amos, Isreal (Atari), Ashedzi for always being there for me. Finally to my prince Raymond Akolo I love u.

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Chapter One: Introduction 1.1

Background of Study Hostel by definition is an establishment which provides cheap food and lodging for specific group of people, it is also seen as a home for students when staying away from their home. It has large well ventilated dormitories and single rooms and is situated in the school premises. Providing clean and calm hostel accommodation is one of the key responsible of school management. To manage the hostel facilities, a lot of data need to be maintained such as number of student hostel can accommodate, hostel rules and regulation, hostel fee, hostel in and out of student, guest and visitor record and so on. So, this needs the system which has an ability to capture all kind of data and information and analyze it properly for smooth functioning of the hostel. Hostel warden can easily maintain the data. Hostel Management in schools often involves administering of all activities of students. All these still remain difficult and require some job for the top management. Hostel Management functions and responsibilities in modern day schools have always been a problem in managing, because of the manual system method of tools they use. Hostel Management System is well designed specially to meet challenges of administrative set up of any school. Hostel Management System (HMS) can be used to assist in student’s allocation, setup hostel information, hostel application, and visitor management. In short, this system will assist the staff in managing some of the hostel activities.

1.2

Brief Historical Background of the College The institution was established in 1977 under the ministry of agriculture as a training school. In 1987, the school was elevated to the status of a college of agriculture promulgated by the then plateau state government by virtue of edict No. 13 of 1987 to higher national diploma levels. Following the creation of Nasarawa State October 1996, the enabling law was reenacted as edict No. 15 of 1998 by the state government and subsequently to reflect the new dispensation as Nasarawa State College of agriculture, lafia.

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The objectives for establishing the institution by the Edict No, 15 of 1998 are: 1. To train people to acquire technical and vocational skills, which are needed for the economic and social development of Nasarawa State and Nigeria as a whole especially in the field of agriculture. 2. To train and provide people who could improve the quality of the environment by applying their acquired knowledge in finding solutions to our environmental problems for the conveniences of members of the society. 3. To inculcate the spirit of self-reliance, industry and versatility in students. 4. Community service oriented training and provides opportunity for students to be able to appreciate the standard of technology in all its complexities. 5. Character-training and promotion of opportunity for job orientation. 6. Instilling into students the desire for achievement excellence and live-long education. 7. Developing national consciousness and loyalty to truth and honesty. List of schools and academic departments The school system came into effect from April, 1998 and each school is headed by a Dean. The schools are: a. School of Agriculture (SOA) with: i.

Department of Animal Science (AS);

ii.

Department of Crop Production Technology (CPT);

iii.

Department of Horticulture And Landscape Technology (HLT);

iv.

Department of Fisheries Technology (FST);

b. School of Agriculture Engineering with: i.

Department of Agriculture Engineering (AE);

ii.

Department of Agricultural Technology (AGT);

c. School of Basic Science and General Studies with: i.

Department of Basic Science (BS);

ii.

Department of General Studies (GS);

d. School Of Agriculture Extension and Home Economics with: i.

Department Of Agricultural Extension And Management (AEM);

ii.

Department of Home And Rural Economics (HRE);

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1.3

Statement of the Problem The growing number of students in higher institutions all over the world has posed a lot of accommodation problem on the part of students and school management. At College of Agriculture Lafia, the whole process of hostel allocation and management is done manually. The few hostels that exist in the college are not properly managed. Statistics of the number of rooms required to match the growing number of students are far-fetched. Most often, the overall process is time consuming and requires a lot of effort, student’s information retrieval is difficult and records are unsecured due to manual method of storage using hard cover notes. Hostel administrators cannot give accurate information of the occupancy of a particular room. These and many more form the statement of the problem that necessitated this research work.

1.4

Aim and Objectives of the Study The aim of the research work is to develop hostel management software that will manage the hostel activities of College of Agriculture Lafia. The main objectives of the research include: a. Identify and model the requirements specification to develop the system. b. Design and develop a central database system that would serve as hostel database, which will contain all the records related to Hostel. c. Provide online student application for students to apply for hostel. d. To upgrade from manual means of student’s hostel management.

1.5

Scope of the Study The scope of this research work is centred on the development of hostel management system for College of Agriculture Lafia. This project which is web-based, automates the student’s hostel application process, allocates rooms to students, notifies students of their application status anytime they log onto the portal and also maintains the integrity of the information being processed by using password to limit access to only approved individuals. The system also creates automatic database for the storage of students and staffs information.

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1.6

Limitations Some of the limitations of the proposed system are: a. The system cannot handle online payment of student’s accommodation fee and maintenance fee. b. The system cannot handle other hostel issues such as mess activities because the existing system does not have one.

1.7

Significance of the Study The new system designed for computer driven student’s hostel management and allocation will among other things: Facilitate timely allocation of hostel rooms to students, Check the hostel occupancy at any time for information management Sum up the total amount realized from hostel fee each session, Enable management to plan on improving hostel living condition, have first-hand information on the statistics of students in the hostel, so also keeps the records of staffs employed to work in the hostel.

1.8

Definition of Terms 1.

Hostel: A hostel is a home for students when staying away from their home. It has large well ventilated dormitories and single rooms and is situated in the school premises.

2.

A Management Information System (MIS): Is a system that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively.

3.

Hostel Management System: is a software that manage the activities of staff and students in the hostel, the system enables students to apply online for hostels and the system allocates rooms to the students in the hostels.

4.

Data: Historically, data referred to known facts that could be recorded and stored on computer media. These are facts made up of text, numbers, images, and sounds.

5.

Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called Databank.

6.

Computer Program: This is a set of instruction that guides the computer on the action to perform.

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7.

System: system is a combination or arrangement of parts to form an integrated whole. A system includes an orderly arrangement according to some common principles or rules.

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Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.1

Definition of Hostel Davies et al (2008), defined hostel as an establishment which provides cheap lodging and food for travellers, a place of residence for students. It is also defined as a budgetoriented, shared-room ("dormitory") accommodation that accepts individual travellers or groups for short-term stays, and that provides common areas and communal facilities (Wikipedia Encyclopedia). It further stated that for it to be considered a hostel, the property must provide short-term, shared (dormitory-style) accommodation for individual travelers, though many hostels also provide private rooms. Hostel has become an opportunity to develop and improve the quality of education in most academic institutions. The desire to provide spaces for students that allow active interaction, comfort and convenience, and opportunities for socialization is foremost in university and college planning (Perkin & Will, 2001). They also assert that all these need to be considered along with the pragmatic spatial needs of furnishings, integration of efficient effective mechanical, electrical, plumbing and safety requirements when planning for hostel buildings.

2.2

Historical Development of Hostel The first youth hostel was founded by Richard Schirrmann around 1909 (www.hostelscentral.com/hostels-article-6.html). He was a German teacher who organized trips and visits with his students. During one of these excursions, a sudden rainstorm forced his group to seek shelter in an empty school. It was then that Schirrmann had the idea of using schools that were empty during holidays as guest houses for young people that were travelling in groups in the countryside (www.hostelscentral.com/hostelsarticle-6.html). The concept of student "youth hostels" was born. The movement flourished in Germany. Permanent hostels were established by gifts of hiking and recreation clubs, wealthy patrons and local communities. By 1932, Germany had more than 2000 youth hostels recording more than 4.5 million overnights annually (http://hiusa.org/about_us/history). In the meantime, Switzerland, Poland, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, the British Isles, Ireland, France and Belgium had joined the

movement

and

added

another

600

hostels

in

Europe

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(http://hiusa.org/about_us/history). With national hostelling associations spreading across Europe, in 1932 the first international meeting was held in Amsterdam to develop common standards. The

International

Youth Hostel

Federation was

formed

(http://hiusa.org/about_us/history). Americans Isabel and Monroe Smith attended the second international meeting in 1933. Shortly afterwards, they opened the first U.S. youth hostel in Northfield, Massachusetts in 1934 (http://hiusa.org/about_us/history). Prewar European political currents overshadowed much of the international movement in the late 1930's. Hostels were closed, and even appropriated by governments for military purposes. The operations of many European hostelling associations were suspended. During the war, the growth of the hostelling movement stalled, although parts of the European youth hostel system still continued to operate, as well as a small network of hostels in the US and Canada. The end of the war brought a time of rebuilding and reflection worldwide. Groups of American youth went to Europe to help rebuild hostels. International youth travel, while still nascent, was embraced by governments as a way to encourage understanding, and avoid future conflict. The International Youth Hostel Federation grew, as the German youth hostel system was re-established and new hostel associations were formed in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America (http://hiusa.org/about_us/history). In recent times, the concept of hostel has broadened, and now providing cheap but comfortable accommodation and a unique atmosphere that cannot be found in hotels. Worldwide, there about 4000 hostels recording over 33 million overnights in more than 80 countries. (www.hiusa.org/about_us/history). 2.3

Student Housing In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions The Nigerian higher educational institution was established with the aim of giving a student a very sound and qualitative education, so as to be able to function effectively in any environment in which they may find themselves, so as to become more productive, self- fulfilling and attain self-actualization (Saint, et al, 2004). This is because in Nigeria, students are the single most important stakeholders in the university/college system. Similarly, student’s accommodation is among the most important facilities that should be provided in a typical Nigeria university campus.

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Living in student’s residence on campuses, has been identified as one of the interesting experiences in the life of a university student. This is because it offers them the opportunity to interact amongst their colleagues from faculties other than their own in addition to the unique opportunity for night discussions and social interactions which when put together will help in shaping the social life of the student’s social life, appreciation of their roles and responsibilities in the community and society at large (Esenwa, 2003). In the beginning Nigerian universities were established with the intention of providing comfortable hostel accommodation for all students on campus. Up till the early 1970’s there was no problem of student’s accommodation in university campuses (Esenwa, 2003). 2.4

Information Systems An information system consists of three components human, task and application system. In this view, information is defined in terms of the three levels of semiotics. Data which can be automatically processed by the application system corresponds to the syntax-level. In the context of an individual who interprets the data they become information, which correspond to the semantic-level. Information becomes knowledge when an individual knows and evaluates the information example for a specific. This corresponds to the pragmatic-level. From Wikipedia, In general systems theory, and information system is a system, automated or manual, that comprises people, machines, and or methods organized to collect, process, transmit, and disseminate data that represent user information. According to John Cooper, Jane Sullivan, (2003), failure of the information systems can cause a major loss of service, and so their dependability is a major concern. Current facets of dependability, such as reliability and availability, do not address the needs of critical information systems adequately because they do not include the notion of degraded service as an explicit requirement. Some background material about critical information systems is helpful in understanding the need for a precise notion of survivability and how it differs from other notions of dependability. According to Zachman J.A., (1987), the subject of information systems architecture is beginning to receive considerable attention. The increased scope of design and levels of complexity of information systems implementations are forcing the use of some logical

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construct (or architecture) for defining and controlling the interfaces and the integration of all of the components of the system. On the assumption that an understanding of information systems architecture is important to the development of a disciplined approach, the question that naturally arises is "What, in fact, is information systems architecture?" Unfortunately, among the proponents of information systems architecture, there seems to be little consistency in concepts or in specifications of "architecture," to the extent that the words "information systems architecture" are already losing their meaning! Furthermore, it probably is not reasonable to expect reconciliation or commonality of definition to emerge from the professional data processing community itself. According to Couger John, (1973), the information systems development process is viewed as consisting of analysis, design, and implementation phases, prior to the operation phase. These phases do not ordinarily take place strictly in the order given but rather exist together in a continuing pattern of interaction. The development of information systems then consists of an iterated process of information analysis, system design, and implementation. This "system life cycle," it has been pointed out, applies to other kinds of development effort as well. 2.5

College Management The college is very fortunate in the quantity and the range of the accommodation it has available to offer its graduate students. All graduate housing is of a very high standard and most has been either built or refurbished in recent years. Priority is given to the first year graduate students and merit from the college activity that students involve. According to Lau Chi Pang, Wong Wan Man (1998), the Birth of Student Hostel: Whole Person Education at the Formative Stage, Lingnan College is the first tertiary institution in Hong Kong to provide opportunities for all students to live and work together in an academy community and to realize more fully the ethos of the college as reflected in its motto "Education for Service", Lingnan College is currently offered 1,500 hostel places to their student which is about 75% of the total student population. According to Downing College, Graduate students in college accommodation live either in college or in graduate hostels which are close by as their studies usually require them to remain in Cambridge for virtually the whole year. Graduate are able to participate as

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fully in college life as all other members. Cooking is not allowed in the room including storing, preparing, cooking or consume food to prevent smell and pest nuisance. Any damage to hostel property must be reported immediately to the hostel management. Residents will have to pay for all damages except those caused by normal wear and tear. There are more than ten colleges at UiTM to allocate their student but it still will not enough to allocate their entire student. Therefore, Student Affairs Office must select the students based on the criteria that Student Affairs Office decide to choose students that are qualified to stay at college along their study at UiTM. According to Mark Drunmiond, a service requirement for graduation that program is effective because it integrates the service component into the curriculum, which can be quite costly. The good condition of college is very important to give comfort to the entire students that have opportunity to stay at the college. The facilities such as light, cafe and room that provided by the college must be in good condition. The hostel management must taking take of welfare of their students. According to Foubert, Tepper and Morrison, (1997), Physical environment and social factors are the two main factors contribute to student satisfaction with the residence hall experience. According to Stange, (1991), Physical features of a residence hall such as architectural design, space. Amenities and location of campus have shown to impact on student's satisfaction with their hall. Physical factors such as light, noise, temperature and air quality also have powerfully influenced overall satisfaction with an environment. The hostel management reserves the right to match those twin sharing residents without a room-mate with same gender. Any damages to room facilities will be shared equally with the room mate. The hostel management reserves the rights to enter, inspect or spot checks the rooms in the interest of proper conduct of the residents, or the orderly and efficient administration and proper use of the rooms, or to maintain or repair the premises but only in the presence of the residents. Unless time permits, a written notification shall be given in advance of the management's intended entry. According to Austin, (1984), several researchers have explored the relationship between residence hall living and satisfaction with the college experience. Researcher has demonstrated that physical environment and social factors can have a substantial impact

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on student's satisfaction with their residence hall experiences. Residence hall experiences, in turn, have shown to have positive impact on student perceptions of their undergraduate experiences, mendships and faculty student relations. 2.6

Student Management According to Marvish, (2003), Student Information Management System (SIMS) is a student-level data collection system that allows the department to collect and analyze more accurate and comprehensive information, to meet federal and state reporting requirements, and to inform policy and programmatic decisions. Student Information Management System provides the complete information and management for the students, parents, faculties, and other staffs of the institution. Some of the features of the Student Information Management System for management are provide management information for decision making, provide easily accessible information for all appropriate, provide information that is accurate, consistent, timely, reliable, and complete, reduce administrative costs, provides information about new management policies, fee structure, date of payment, new rules and helps management keep track of profiles and performance of all students in the institutions. These are some recommendations which merit further consideration, though they cannot yet stand on their own and these are identified in the attached analysis. Students have a range of choice in the room's allocation system. First-years fill in a form that provided by UiTM before arrival, indicating the rent band of the room they would prefer. They also can contact Student Affair Office if they need house to rent and not interested to stay at the college or maybe college did not provide to them. According to Downing College, (2006), Downing gives priority to the accommodation of first year graduate students and overall it is able to house around half of its total graduate population. Graduate students in college accommodation live either in college or in graduate hostels which are close by as their studies usually require them to remain in Cambridge for virtually the whole year. Graduates are able to participate as fully in college life as ail other member. Residents are responsible for the up-keep of cleanliness and tidiness of their rooms at all times including the common areas in the hostel, such as the loimge area, pantry and bathrooms for the convenience of the next users. No residents are allowed to make

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alterations or damage to the premises or to remove any fittings. Anyone caught violating this rule will be subjected to appropriate charges and action where deemed necessary by the management. Residents sharing common facilities within the room of the residence shall be liable for a joint payment towards the cost of repair or loss of facilities within the room in the event that such damage or loss is not attributable to a single resident. According to Katong, (2005), All students must read and are expected to abide by the following rules and regulations. Any student who fails to comply with any of these rules and regulations shall be subjected to disciplinary action and may be EVICTED from the residence by the Management. Any balance of the accommodation fees will be forfeited and students will have to pay damages where applicable. Assist students in representing themselves and their interest in the most effective manner possible. Provide support to students, enabling them to develop identification with the college through cultural, educational, social, recreational and training programs. Advocate for students on various campus committees. Encourage faculty and staff to be supportive of students and their co-curriculum activities. Assist students in developing skills that enable them to accomplish their co-curriculum goals. Advocate for student interests within student activities and the college as a whole by provide a student perspective in student activities training and general policy development and work with students to initiate new student organizations.

2.7

Current System at College of Agric Lafia The current hostel allocation and management system at College of Agriculture Lafia is done manually; during application, the students first of all go to the student’s affairs unit to verify hostel availability, if available the student is giving a BED-SPACE REQUISITION/ALLOCATION FORM. The student will have to fill the form, take the form to his/her head of department for verification, the HOD will check to find out if the student is eligible and belongs to the category of student’s entitled to hostel accommodation. If the student is qualified, the HOD will approve by signing the form. The student will now go to the bank and pay the accommodation fee to the college account, the form is giving free but the accommodation fee is #90 and is paid alongside

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with the school fees, while the maintenance fee is #2500 is also paid to the school account but is done separately. After the payment, the student proceed to the bursary unit for exchange of teller to receipt, the student then goes to the student’s affairs unit with the form, the bank teller and the receipts. The student’s affairs officer keeps the record of the bank details; the student affairs officer who is also the hostel coordinator will verify the hostel availability and then allocate the student if available. The allocation of rooms to students is done on the basis of first come first serve, the category of students entitled to hostel accommodation includes: Pre ND, ND2, pre HND, HND2. College of agriculture lafia has a total number of 13 hostels, 8boys hostels and 5girls hostels. The hostels are named as follows: boy’s hostels (Lafia Hall, Wamba Hall, Keana Hall, Awe Hall, Toto Hall, Keffi Hall, Doma Hall, Nasarawa Hall,). Girls Hostels (Nasarawa Eggon, Akwanga, Obi, Kokona, and Karu Hall). The room capacity for boy’s hostel is 5per room and is based on bed-space, whereas for girls vary, some hostels are having capacity of 5, 4, 3, and 2. The method of storage of students data is done using Hard-over notes and is done based on hostels i.e. each hostel has a hard cover notebook for its record keeping. Some of the challenges faced by the college management and students include: limited hostel accommodation, inefficient storage method, slow retrieval of information increased students population each session.

2.8

Other Related Works Ezzat F. Guirgius. A review of the hostel situation in county down. Northern Ireland Queen Street Mental Health Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In this article, it is shown about the hospital’s situation. In 1992, the working party was set up to report on the hostel situation in co. down, Northern Ireland and to make recommendations regarding future needs. The hostels have been in existence in co. down since 1963 and have increased from four beds to 102 beds at the time of the report.

Smithey. PN (1999). Empower and Partification: A contextual analysis of resident management in public housing, 150.

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A journal has been written by Smithey.P discuss about a contextual analysis of resident management in public housing. Resident management is a policy that allows the tenants of the apartment to act wisely fully to settle the community problem, gain the support from public and some funding. By using black empowerment cities as a research, Smithey find out a suitable way to manage resident in public housing. By using this journal, one can know what was needed in an apartment or hostel for students to live and what are the requirements for a good resident.

Bowman k. (2007) A new role for student housing, revitalizing a mid-sized city core, 174. The journal has been written by Bowman K. the journal discusses about students residence. The survey from 380 respondents’ shows 1.6% expressed a desire to live in a student residence. Majority of students’ response indicate that they want to choose their own living environment than dormitory standard space. The other results shows that they would like to add the parking lot, restaurants and grocery store as the additional facilities at their resident. The apartments that are provided to students have occupancy range from one to four people. The individual rooms were organized suitable to the student’s activities in their rooms. Pulvis C.L. (2008). The ecological footprint of hostel tourists in Ontorio and Quebec. This journal had been written by Pulvis C. and it discusses about hostels survey. This survey required detailed information on sample hostels. The survey was designed appropriately to collect the information about the hostel. A qualitative questionnaire was designed to get their opinion about the sample hostels. The collected information includes the occupants, the month that gets higher occupants, and the facilities of the sample hostels. After the survey, the manager will make the analysis about the sample hostels.

JE Calmeyer & GJ Delport. (2002). The modelling and control of hot water consumption in residential hostels. Centre for new electricity studies, department of electrical and electronics engineering University of Pretoria, South Africa. This paper describes the models that have been developed for the design of control of hot water consumption of the residential hostel at the University of Pretoria. It is based on

15

1999 tariff rates. Hot water load capacity is available to be controlled on main campus alone. In the optimal control of the hot water cylinders, stratification of hot water in the cylinder is not considered.

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Chapter Three: Research Methodology 3.1

The Methodology for This Work The methodology adopted for this research work is object oriented methodology (OOP). We live in a world of objects. These objects exist in nature, in man-made entities, in business, and in the products that we use. They can be categorized, described, organized, combined, manipulated and created. Therefore, an object-oriented view has come into picture for creation of computer software. An object- oriented approach to the development of software was proposed in late 1960s. Object-Oriented development requires that object-oriented techniques be used during the analysis, and implementation of the system. This methodology asks the analyst to determine what the objects of the system are, how they behave over time or in response to events, and what responsibilities and relationships an object has to other objects. Object-oriented analysis has the analyst look at all the objects in a system, their commonalties, difference, and how the system needs to manipulate the objects. OOM of building systems takes the objects as the basis, Firstly, the system to be developed is observed and analysed and the requirements are defined. Secondly, the objects in the required system are identified e.g. students, admin, computer systems, online allocation system etc. in simple terms, OOM is based on identifying the objects in a system and their interrelationships, once this is done, the implementation of the system is done. The basic steps of system designing using Object Modelling may be listed as: a. System Analysis b. System Design c. Object Design d.

Implementation

3.1.2 Advantages of Object Oriented Methodology Object Oriented Methodology closely represents the problem domain. Because of this, it is easier to produce and understand designs. The objects in the system are immune to requirement changes. Therefore, allows changes more easily.

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Object Oriented Methodology designs encourage more re-use. New applications can use the existing modules, thereby reduces the development cost and cycle time. Object Oriented Methodology approach is more natural. It provides nice structures for thinking and abstracting and leads to modular design. 3.2

System Analysis Systems analysis is a process of collecting factual data, understanding the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the functionality of the system. This involves studying the business processes, entity relationships gathering operational data, understand the information flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving solutions for overcoming the weaknesses of the system so as to achieve the organizational goals. System Analysis also includes decoupling of complex processes that make up the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes.

3.2.1 Analysis of the Existing System The population of students gaining admission to higher institutions is increasing on yearly basis. This is putting enormous pressure on the facilities in these institutions. Adopting the conventional manual scheduling methods to the facility management job is the common practice in most institutions here in developing world. This method is characterized by numerous drawbacks, some of which are human error, low security, data redundancy, difficulty in management, difficulty in data update, difficulty in record keeping, difficulty in data recovery in case of disaster etc. 3.2.2 Advantages of the Existing System 1. Power supply does not affect the operation of the current system. 2. The current system can be used by both computer literates and non-computer literates. 3.2.3 Disadvantages of the Existing System The existing system is characterized but not limited to the following inefficiencies: 1. The current system makes the retrieval of information very difficult because of the large volume of file one has to sort through to retrieve or have access to one’s file.

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2. The current system lacks adequate security because unauthorized users can have access to information which makes inefficient. 3. The current system is vulnerable to natural disaster like flood, fire outbreak and rodent attack of files which will cause loss of information. 4. The current system lacks a computer-based database for the storage of files which makes these files to occupy the physical storage space. 5. Lots of time is devoted to the filling of forms in logical for easy retrieval of information. 6. There is insufficient manpower to cope with the growing population. 3.2.4 Alternative Solution to the Problems Identified The alternative solution to these problems is development of an online hostel management system; the hostel management system will eliminate the problems encountered in the manual system. If implemented, it will play a great role such as: 1. Increase efficiency: the computerized system formulates accurate efficiency, faster and effective way of processing hostel activities, with the intervention of computer. 2. Storage: the new system provides a better means of information storage, all records related to hostel are stored on a centralized database and encrypted to avoid unauthorized access. 3. Error free: the new system with the computer intervention in processing, errors will be avoided or eliminated. 4. Speed: the new system offers the students affairs officer and the management an opportunity to retrieve and sort files in the shortest possible time compared to the manual method. 5. Reliability: delay is completely faced out on the retrieval of record about hostel using the computerized system. 3.2.5 Justification for the Proposed System After a thorough analysis of the existing system and a careful feasibility study to find out if there is need for automation of the existing system, the adoption and implementation of the proposed system will in no doubt be of great benefit to the institution (College of Agriculture Lafia) which will help in overhauling the current system which is

19

characterized by inconsistency, data security, lack of data integrity, concurrency problem and the possibility of student’s file being lost on transit. The proposed system which will run on a Server with its robust database will prevent ineligible students from applying, ensure data integrity by eliminating duplicity of information, keep track of information in the system and above all interconnect all those involved in the student’s allocation/management process. 3.2.6 Analysis of the Proposed System The proposed system which is a web-based that can be launched on the internet or run on a server is a robust system which interconnects all the departments and personnel involved in the student’s management and allocation process in a network. The system also have robust database for the storage of information in all places where students data needs to be stored. 3.2.7 Advantages of the Proposed System 1. The proposed system will automate the hostel’s allocation/management process thereby eliminating the loopholes associated with the current system. 2. The use of database will help in easy retrieval of information and control data concurrency. 3. The use of password will be incorporated to maintain and ensure data security and integrity. 4. The online connection of all the departments and the relevant personnel involved in the allocation process will help users to locate and view information faster and use application that is relevant to their roles and responsibilities. 5. The new system is cost effective because information can be accessed through web browsers rather than maintaining physical documents which will help to save money on printing, duplicating of documents as well as document maintenance overhead. 3.2.8 Disadvantages of the Proposed System 1. The proposed system will require electricity to function. 2. It will take time to train the adequate manpower required to operate the proposed system.

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3.3

Data Collection Method The process by which data collected are systematically analysed and interpreted by a researcher. The two data that are analysed usually are: -

The primary data

-

The secondary data

3.3.1 Primary Source of Data This primarily centers on direct involvement with personnel or experts in the field of discipline the researcher is carrying out his/ her research on. The major tool for the collection of the primary data for this researcher work is: -

Interview: Use of interview-oral awarding of questions to the student’s affairs officer of college of agriculture lafia and some students. The accuracy in using this method of obtaining data for processing is high because there are no assumed figures or data. The information gotten is trusted to be genuine. The awarding of oral questions to respondents was to aid the researcher get a leverage ground of the technical knowhow of the impact of the use of the web especially in College of Agriculture Lafia which is chosen as the case study for this research. All this aimed towards arriving at a good conclusion.

-

Direct observation: Complementing the interview is personal observation of the routine of the college.

3.3.2 Secondary Source of Data The secondary source of data used for this research is the use of libraries which comprises of textbooks, past project works, the internet, and other related works. This method of data collection is to broaden the scope of the researcher and to look into several peoples work and what has been done so far in order to give his/her own quota to the topic under review. 3.4

System Design and Specification The system design shows the blueprint of any system that is to be developed. It gives the very detail about every component of the system that is to be built. Here the researcher gives the general outline of the final product (what could be referred to as manual).

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The various procedure of usage of the new system is given here, i.e. how to, what to and on what shall the system be used on. The importance of the design is to enable system designer or researcher to know the cost consequence of the product on the user and the developer. In that the effectiveness of the system will not be obsolete. (Investing much resource and having less productivity). 3.4.1 Dataflow Diagram A data flow diagram models objects, associations and activities by describing how data flow between and around various objects. Data flow diagram is used to illustrate how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and outputs. They are pipelines through which packets of information flow. Data flow diagram work on the premise that for every activity there is some communication, transference or flow that can be described as a data element. Data flow diagrams describe what activities are occurring to fulfill a business relationship or accomplish a business task, not how these activities are to be performed. It shows the logical sequence of associations and activities, not physical processes. Context Dataflow Diagram A context diagram is a top level (also known as “level 0”) dataflow diagram. It only contains only one process node (“process 0”) that generalizes the function of the entire system in relationship to the external entities.

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busary Student Details

Rooms

Students payment e pac s e abl l i a Av

Stu den

ts i n

fo

HOSTEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

y ntr e s ke a M

Data Entry Channel

Other hostel issues

Figure 3.1 Context DFD

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Level 1 Dataflow Diagram Level 1 DFD is an expansion of the context diagram that shows more processes and how the interacts with the system in terms of inputs and outputs.

Retrieve Applications Application Students info Applying Space

Available Space Reports

Bio-data

HMS

Allocation of space

Verifying entitlements

Admin

Admin details Figure 3.2: Level 1 DFD

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Level 2 Dataflow Diagram

kn Ac

edg wl

e

o

Applications Makes application

Applying

den ti Vie nfo wi nfo

Students

Stu

Available space

HMS

Bio-data

Verifying entitlement

e spac e l ab vail a r o available ck f Che

Admin

entitled

Yes or

No

if Check

Ve rify Yes/ no

Allocating room

Negative app Figure 3.3: Level 2 DFD

3.4.2 Entity Relationship Model An entity relationship model (ER model) is a systematic way of describing and defining a business process. The process is modeled as components (entities) that are linked with each other by relationships that express the dependencies and requirements between them, such as: one building may be divided into zero or more apartments, but one

25

apartment can only be located in one building. Entities may have various properties (attributes) that characterize them. Diagrams created to represent these entities, attributes, and relationships graphically are called entity relationship diagrams. An ER model is typically implemented as a database. In the case of a relational database, which stores data in tables, every row of each of table represents one instance of an entity. Some data fields in these tables point to indexes in other tables; such pointers represent the relationships. Bill no Amount

Date

Name

Id

Matric No Name

Age

BILL

1

Pays

Address

Name

N

Staff

Type

rooms

Address

STUDENT

Gender

N

Admitted to

1

SERVICES

1

1

N

Allots

Has

Offers

N

HOSTEL

N Has

Stays in N

Name

Date

Staff id

1

Gender

N

Name

N Gender

Time

VISITOR

ROOM

N

STAFF

description Room No

Capacity

Position

Charges

Figure 3.4: Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Salary

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3.4.3 Use Case Model Use case diagrams describe what a system does from the standpoint of an external observer. The emphasis of use case diagrams is on what a system does rather than how. They are used to show the interactions between users of the system and the system. A use case represents the several users called actors and the different ways in which they interact with the system.

Actors 

Students

Admin

Hostel management System

Use Cases 

Apply

Setup hostels

Set rooms

View status

Delete setups

View applications

Change password

Login.

Below is the diagram of the use case for the proposed system.

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System LOGIN

APPLY SETUP HOSTELS VIEW STATUS SETUP ROOMS

CHANGE PASSWORD STUDENT ADD STAFF VIEW PROFILE

ADMIN

VIEW APPLICATIONS

RECEIVE SMS

APPROVE APPLICATIONS

DELETE SETUPS

Figure 3.5: Use case diagram

3.5

System Requirements To be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer. These prerequisites are known (as computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/system_requirements) Below are the requirements for the proposed system:

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3.5.1 Functional Requirements FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS Hostel information

View application status

EXAMPLE

DESCRIPTION Information the system

The system must contain the

must contain

students information

Status the system must

The system should allow

contain

students to check for their application status

Rooms allocation

Allocate rooms to hostel

The system should be able to allocate rooms to students

3.5.2 Input Requirements The input requirements includes: users ID, students details, staff details, hostels, rooms, programmes, levels, reports, fees type, no of beds, room number, room capacity etc. 3.5.3 Output Requirements The output requirements includes: reports, available space, staff information, students details etc. 3.5.4 Hardware and Software Requirements The hardware is the physical and tangible components of a system unit which will function together to perform the required task. These components are: 1. Central processing unit (CPU) 2. Network 3. Keyboard 4. 512 Mb of RAM 5. 10 Gb of hard disc 6. Monitor (VDU-visual display unit) 7. Printer

29

8. Mouse 9. Uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The software is the non-physical part of the system that uses the hardware components to successfully run the system that has been built. These components are: 1. Windows operating system 2. Local host (WAMP Server) 3.

Web browser

4. Dreamweaver 5. MySQL 3.6

Table Specification The information on the database of the website which is in formatted tables, making it a relational database, it has to be regularly updated and edited. Implying that there should be masters file which according to Mr. Adegoke (introduction to file processing, 2008) is not permanent in nature, since it has to reflect current changes to reflect the current events as they unfold. Among the tables to be regarded as master files in this research work is; i.

Students information table

ii.

Hostel application table

iii.

Hostel’s table

iv.

Room’s table

v.

Programme’s table

vi.

Fee structure table

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Table 1: Student’s Data Table The student’s data table below stores student’s information on the database.

FIELDNAME

DESCRIPTION

FIELD DATA TYPE

FIELD SIZE

Studid

Student id

INTEGER

10

Coursed

Course id

INTEGER

10

Name

Student’s name

VARCHAR

50

Rollno

Student’s reg no.

VARCHAR

15

Dob

Date of birth

VARCHAR

50

father_name

Father’s name

VARCHAR

50

mother_name

Mother’s religion

VARCHAR

50

Gender

Student’s gender

VARCHAR

10

Address

Student’s address

TEXT

contact_no

Mobile number

VARCHAR

15

parent_no

Parents contact

VARCHAR

15

blood_group

Students blood grp

VARCHAR

10

status

Status

VARCHAR

15

level

student’s level

VARCHAR

45

Table 2: programme table This table stores information about student’s programme of study, it stores information such as the programme id, the name of the programme, the years of the programme. The programme table is shown below. FIELD NAME

DESCRIPTION

FIELD DATA TYPE

FIELD SIZE

course_id

Programme id

INTEGER

10

course_name

Programme name

VARCHAR

20

no_of_year

Programme years

VARCHAR

10

status

Status

VARCHAR

15

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Table 3: hostel table This table stores the information of the hostel, information such as, the hostel id, hostel name, the category of the hostel (gender), number of beds, FIELD NAME

DESCRIPTION

FIELD DATA TYPE

FIELD SIZE

block_id

Hostel id

INTEGER

10

block_name

Hostel name

VARCHAR

25

gender

Hostel gender

VARCHAR

20

description

Hostel type

TEXT

45

status

Status

VARCHAR

10

Table 4: Room table This table stores the details of a room, details such as the roomid, the hostel where the room is located, the room number, number of beds in the room and the hostel description. Below is the room table. FIELD NAME

DESCRIPTION

FIELD DATA TYPE

FIELD SIZE

room_id

Room id

INTEGER

10

block_id

Hostel id

INTEGER

10

room_no

Room no

INTEGER

10

no_of_beds

Number of beds

INTEGER

5

description

Hostel

TEXT

45

status

Status

VARCHAR

10

Table 5: Fees structure table This table stores information about hostel fees, it stores information like fee structure id, programme id, fee type, cost and the status. Below is the fee structure table.

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FIELD NAME

DESCRIPTION

FIELD DATA TYPE

FIELD SIZE

fee_str_id

Fee id

INTEGER

10

course_id

Programme id

INTEGER

10

fee_type

Type of fee

VARCHAR

25

Cost

Price

FLOAT

10,5

Status

Status

VARCHAR

15

3.7

Design Tools for the Project The technologies/tools that will be used for this work are as follows: HTML: Hypertext Mark-up Language is a web design application that works with codes on it. It is the oldest application for designing websites. The HTML editor is similar to creating documents in Microsoft word. A website is a whole bunch of interconnected computers talking to one another. The computers on the web are typically connected by phone lines, digital satellites signals cables and other types of data-transfer mechanisms. The codes written are viewed in the World Wide Web browser. The HTML carries on it images, music, text etc. 1. DREAMWEAVER: Is a web development application which allows users to preview websites in locally installed browsers. It is a tool that empowers designers and developers to build standards-based website with confidence. The design is done visually or directly in code. It is fully a WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) editor. It makes creation and development of web easy, interesting and quick. For this project Dreamweaver is used for describing the pages. 2. PHP: PHP is a powerful tool for making dynamic and interactive web pages; PHP is widely used, free, and efficient competitors such as Microsoft’s ASP. PHP is an HTML-embedded scripting language, much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP specific features thrown in. the goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. PHP is used to establish the database connection, it is also used to make some queries on this project. 3. MySQL: MySQL is a relational database management system. It stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the data in one big store room. This adds speed flexibility.

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The MySQL database server is very fast, reliable, cheaper and easy to use and learn. MySQL today offers a rich and useful set of functions. Its connectivity, speed and security make it highly suited for accessing databases on the internet, it also supports clustering technology. On this project MySQL is used for creating the database. 4. WAMPSERVER: This is a local server that hosts a website that is designed for a test run. It is not accessible through the internet; it is only on the system on which it is installed that it functions. It is functional on only windows operating system. 5. JAVASCRIPT: is a web tool that adds interactive functions to HTML pages, which are otherwise static, since HTML is a display language, not a programming language. On the client, JavaScript is maintained as source code embedded into an HTML page. On the server, it is compiled into byte code (intermediate language), similar to java programs. 6. CSS (cascading style sheet): style sheets have been used for document designs for years. They are the technical specifications for layout, whether print or online. Print designers use style sheets to ensure that their designs are printed exactly to specifications. 7. ADOBE PHOTOSHOP: This is a graphic editor which works concurrently with Dreamweaver. It facilitates the designs of banner, logos, template for web pages, site and other web applications. Fireworks do not have the control of visual editing environment due to its ability to create graphics together with its code to be exported to Dreamweaver. 8. STAR UML Star Uml is built as a modular and open tool. It provides frameworks for extending the functionality of the tool. It is design to allow access to all functions of the model/metamodel and tool through COM automation and it provides extension of menu and option items. Also, user can create their own approaches and frameworks according to their methodologies. The tool can also be integrated with any external tools. StarUml support the following diagram types: a. Use case diagram b. Class diagram c. Activity diagram

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9. Microsoft Visio Visio is a program that falls under the Microsoft Office suite of products. It is used for many things that utilize layouts, diagrams and charts. The graphics that are used in Visio are standard images utilized by flowcharts, decision diagrams, playbooks and even network diagramming. It even has enough diagrams to make planning a room layout for a conference accurate and simple.

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Chapter Four: Analysis and Discussion of Results 4.1

Analysis The analysis of the Existing system and of the proposed system with alternative solution to the current system and the advantages and disadvantages have been discussed is chapter three of this project. section 3.2.1 discuss the analysis of the Existing system, section 3.2.4 discuss the alternative solution and the advantages and disadvantages of the identified problems, section 3.2.6, 3.2.7, 3.2.8 discuss the analysis of the Proposed system with its advantages and disadvantages respectively.

4.2

Discussion of Results Below is the system modules and how it operates, it will give the users better understanding of how the system works.

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4.2.1 The Home Page This is the first page that opens to a user as the user logs on to the website. The page gives the highlight of the website. It answers the anticipation of the user as to what is contained in the website. It further gives the user the opportunity to browse and navigate through the site. Below is the screenshot of the home page.

Figure 4.1: Showing the Homepage

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4.2.2 The User’s Login Page The user’s login page is the page where users of the system can login and have access to their dashboard. The login page has two user login, the student login and the admin login, the admin login is where the admin can have access to his own dashboard (page), the students will login with their matric number to gain access to the application page. Below is the user's login page.

Figure 4.2: showing the User's Login page

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4.2.3 The Students Module This page is where a student is taking to after login in with his matric number, on this page there are menu links where students can carry out some operations, such as view application status, apply for hostel, view his profile, and can change his password. Below is the student’s panel.

Figure 4.3: Showing the Student's Module

39

4.2.4 Application Module On clicking the apply menu from the student panel, this is the page that is displayed to the students, if the students matric number is valid, some details about the students is also displayed, the student will then go ahead and apply for a hostel. Below is the application module.

Figure 4.4: Showing the Application Module

40

4.2.5 View Application Module This module is where students can view their application status, if the application has been approved on status below it will appear approved, otherwise it will appear pending. Below is the view application module.

Figure 4.5: Showing the View Application Module

41

4.2.6 Student’s Profile Module Students can view their profile from this page, below is the student’s profile page.

Figure 4.6: Showing the Student's Profile Module

42

4.2.7 Change Password Module On this page students who wish to change their login password can do so by supplying the system with their old password, a new password and a confirmed password. Below is the page where students can change their password.

Figure 4.7: Showing the Change Password Module

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4.2.8 The Admin Module This is the page that is displayed to the admin after login with his log-in id and password to carry out some operations. The page welcomes the admin if the userid and password are valid. The page has menu links and also dropdown menus where the admin can navigate to carry out the operations. The admin dashboard is shown below.

Figure 4.8: Showing the Admin Module

44

4.2.9 Hostel Application/ Approval Page This is the page where the admin can view all the applications; from this page the admin can approve the applications by selecting a hostel to check the applications on the hostel. Below is the hostel application/ approval page.

Figure 4.9: Showing the Hostel Application/Approval Page

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4.2.10 Hostel Module The hostel module is used by the admin to add hostels and store to the database. The admin does that by entering the hostel name, gender and the description of the hostel. Below is the hostel module.

Figure 4.10: Showing the Hostel Module

46

4.2.11 View Hostel On the view hostel page, the admin can view the hostels already added, he can edit and delete the existing hostels. Below is the view hostel page.

Figure 4.11: Showing the View Hostel Module

47

4.2.12 Add Rooms On this page the admin add rooms to hostel, he selects the hostel and add the room number, number of beds in the room and the description of the room. On clicking submit the room will added on the database. Below is the page for adding rooms.

Figure 4.12: Showing Add Rooms Module

48

4.2.13 View Rooms This page is where the admin can view all the rooms that is existing in the database ,the admin view the rooms by selecting a hostel and clicking on submit so as to able the software display the available rooms in that particular hostel, The admin can edit and delete any from here. Below is the page to view rooms.

Figure 10.13: Showing View Rooms Module

49

4.2.14 View Students Page This page is where the admin can view the details of all the applicants. Below is the screenshot of the view student’s page.

Figure 10.14: Showing View Students Page

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Chapter Five: Summary and Conclusion 5.1

Summary This project work titled “design and implementation of hostel management system” developed, is based on the requirement specification of the users and the analysis of the existing system. Identification of the drawbacks of the existing system leads to the designing of the computerized system that will be compatible with the existing system, the proposed system is more user friendly and more GUI oriented. This research project was able to build a hostel management system for College of Agriculture Lafia to manage the processes involved in hostel application, allocation and management. Having a robust database, it stores every information as related to hostels. It also allow for updating of such information as it is one of the activities of file processing and the characteristics of a database. So also the online application of hostels by students is made possible. The system developed ensures that: 

Hostel application is done through the internet.

Rooms are allotted automatically.

Students will become more familiar with the use of the internet.

Human errors will be minimized.

Safety of student’s records and information is highly maintained.

The layman will be able to use it without difficulty.

Chapter one of this project covers the introduction of the project with sections such as: statement of the problem, aims and objectives, background of study, scope and limitations etc. Chapter two discuss the literature review, related work on hostel management system are discussed. Chapter three of this project discusses the methodology adopted for this project, the method of data collection, system analysis and the table specification. Chapter four discusses the implementation and the results of this project and finally, the chapter five ends this project with the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

51

5.2

Review of Achievement The hostel management system has been tested and found to achieve the following: 

Online hostel application

The development of robust database to help manage both students and staff data at the appropriate data locations.

5.3

Automatic allotment of rooms to hostels.

Allocating students to hostels.

Ensure security of information.

Areas of Application This software can be used by any institution that uses the same hostel management and application policy with College Of Agriculture Lafia which is applicable to all institutions of higher learning in Nigeria.

5.4

Contribution to the Body of Knowledge This research work which centres on hostel management system for College of Agriculture Lafia utilizes the concept of information technology. It expanded the use of internet as in web enabled hostel application process which helps in easier hostel application which is independent of human weakness as compared to the human working as compared to the working of the computer. This system will also help other institutions in having an insight of how hostel management system works.

5.5

Suggestion for Further Studies Due to time constraints and lack of resources, an area such as online payment of accommodation and maintenance fee was not incorporated. This online payment facility will enable student’s to pay their hostel fee online without necessary going to the bank or coming to school with teller after paying at the bank, therefore it will go a long way reducing the stress from the overall process.

52

5.6

Conclusion In conclusion, the hostel management system developed in PHP provides a platform for students of College of Agriculture Lafia to carryout hostel application online and to also enable the Staffs manage the hostel applications. The proposed system is faster and efficient compared to the existing system and can perform the following task: a. online hostel application b. online students and staff information management c. online hostel application approval based on first come first serve d. viewing hostel application status online e. Sending of application alert to students via sms. The software does not capture online payment, other hostel issues such as mess activities, visitors profile etc.

5.7

Recommendation The researcher wishes to recommend that: 1. Other researchers should work on areas such as the implementation of the online hostel fee payment.

53

REFERENCES Brakel, P V. (2003) Information portals: a strategy for importing external content, Electronic Library, Vol. 21 Iss: 6, pp. 591-600.

Bowman k. (2007) A new role for student housing, revitalizing a mid-sized city core, 174.

Chi P., Wong W.M (1998), the Birth of Student Hostel: Whole Person Education at the Formative Stage.

Ezzat F. (1992). A review of the hostel situation in county down. Northern Ireland Queen Street Mental Health Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

JISC (2008) Richmond Adult Community College: Using Technology to make a step in business efficiency and responsiveness, Regional Support Centres, London.

Katz, R. N. (2002) About Web Portals: A home page does not make a portal. Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company. Matovu, M. (2009) Availability, accessibility and use of ICT in management of students’ academic affairs in Makerere University. Available: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/909

Pulvis C.L. (2008). The ecological footprint of hostel tourists in Ontorio and Quebec.

Pena-Lopez, I. (2007) The Personal Research Portal: Web 2.0 Driven Individual commitment with open access development, Knowledge Management for Development Journal, Amsterdam. 3 (1) 35-48.

Smithey. PN (1999). Empower and Partification: A contextual analysis of resident management in public housing, 150.

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APPENDIX Appendix 1: PROJECT PROPOSAL DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ONLINE HOSTEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (A case study of College of Agriculture Lafia) Online Hostel Management System is a project that aims at building a web based system that will enable online hostel application and management. The main goal of this project is to develop an online Hostel Management System that will manage all hostel activities for College of Agriculture Lafia which is the case study for the research, this will minimize the cost and effort of managing the hostel activities, the system which is a web based will be launched on the internet and has a robust database that will keep records of all information related to hostel management for easy retrieval, it will also make students familiar with the use of the internet, it will also upgrade the status of the college socially and academically. The intended system will enable students to create a portal account, a student will login the portal and follow the steps on the web page to do his/her hostel transaction. A student will have to login with his matric number and password, to proceed with checking his application status, the system will be developed in such a way that the admin who could be any staff responsible for hostel allocation to Login with his username and password to view all the hostel applications and approve. On approving any application, the system sends Sms to the applicant about his hostel/application details. The system will also enable the admin staff to setup the hostel, setup available rooms, the capacity etc. With the knowledge of web design and application, database and PHP I will be able to achieve this project. DESIGN TOOLS: The basic tools that will be used to develop this software are stated below: PHP, JavaScript and MySQL

55

Appendix 2: SOURCE CODE The index page

FAQs

What is online hostel management system? ›

A hostel management system is software developed for managing various activities in the hostel. It manages activities including the student information, room information, mess bills, room allocation details, fee details and tracking of the number of students and availability of students.

Which algorithm is used for hostel management system? ›

Online Hostel Management System Using Hybridized Techniques of Random Forest Algorithm and Long Short-Term Memory.

What is the scope of hostel management system? ›

It tracks all the details about the Hostel, Rooms, Payments. Provides the searching facilities based on various factors. Such as Rent, Hostel, Rooms, Payments. College Management System also sells the employees details online for students details, employees details, courses.

Why hostel management system is important? ›

Hostel management system is designed to manage all hostel activities like hostel admissions, fees, room, mess allotment, hostel stores & generates related reports for smooth transactions. It is also used to manage monthly mess bill calculation, hostel staff payroll, student certificates, etc.

Why is hostel management important? ›

The hostel management system saves time in carrying out the daily activities and automation of different processes brings efficiency to the system. Checking the availability of rooms, admission of new hostel students, preparing various reports is now a task of a few clicks with the help of Vidyalaya's software.

How do hostels manage students? ›

Top 10 ways for hostels to manage student admission and improve efficiency
  1. Manual hostel administration.
  2. Manual allocation of facilities.
  3. Wastage of resources.
  4. Increase in staff workload.
  5. Difficulty in retrieving hostel record of assets & inventory.
  6. Tedious and time consuming work.
  7. Inaccuracy of data.
28 Jul 2015

What is the purpose of hotel management system project? ›

Hotel management project provides room booking, staff management and other necessary hotel management features. The system allows the manager to post available rooms in the system. Customers can view and book room online. Admin has the power of either approving or disapproving the customer's booking request.

Which software is used for algorithm? ›

Difference between Software and Algorithm :
SoftwareAlgorithm
List of software includes google chrome, adobe reader, Microsoft office, etc.List of algorithm includes searching algorithm, bit algorithm, recursive algorithm, randomized algorithm, etc.
8 more rows
7 Dec 2020

What are the advantages of hostel? ›

8 benefits of staying in a hostel
  • Hostels are budget-friendly. ...
  • Hostels have kitchens and common areas. ...
  • It's easy to meet people at hostels. ...
  • Hostels often organize events for their guests. ...
  • There are a lot of different types of hostels all over the world.
1 Aug 2022

Which things are important for hostel? ›

Things Needed for Hostel
  • Toiletries. Toiletries are one of the most essential things for hostel life. ...
  • Extension Board. Your hostel room will have only one plug point. ...
  • Earphones and Earplugs. ...
  • Laundry detergent. ...
  • First-aid Kit. ...
  • Sheets and Blankets. ...
  • Slippers or Flip Flops. ...
  • Powerbank.
23 Aug 2022

What are activities of the hostel? ›

Hostel Activities
  • GAMES. NIGHT STUDIES. NIGHT STUDIES. ...
  • NIGHT STUDIES. NIGHT STUDIES. NIGHT STUDIES. ...
  • MEALS. NIGHT STUDIES. TUTORIALS. ...
  • TUTORIALS. CELEBRATION OF BIRTHDAYS. TUTORIALS. ...
  • CELEBRATION OF BIRTHDAYS. CELEBRATION OF BIRTHDAYS. CELEBRATION OF BIRTHDAYS. ...
  • SPORTS TRAINING. CELEBRATION OF BIRTHDAYS. CELEBRATION OF BIRTHDAYS.

Why are hostels important to students? ›

Students who stay in hostels don't have to travel and face traffic. They can attend classes easily and utilize their time in a better way like studying in a library or playing sports. The hostel also provides a great environment for studying to students.

What is the purpose of Student Management System? ›

A Student Management System is also known as a Student Information System (SIS). These systems work to coordinate scheduling and communications between faculty regarding students. This system exists to simplify information tracking for both parents and administrative staff.

What is the best thing about hostel life? ›

Independence and freedom

In a hostel, you are accountable for everything from getting up in the morning, to having meals, to washing clothes and what not. Hostel life gives the flexibility to fly in the open and seek things you couldn't pursue when at home.

What problems do students face in hostels? ›

Understudies living in hostels face numerous troubles and obstacles, for example, money related emergencies, alteration issues, individual weakness, distress, changes in eating and rest propensities, and numerous different issues.

How do you manage hostel life? ›

Either way, we asked our Base Blogger Katie for her 10 Tips to Surviving Hostel Life...
  1. Train your Nose to turn bad smells into good smells. ...
  2. Make Friends with the Hostel Staff. ...
  3. Make the most of Free or Cheap Stuff. ...
  4. Take the Stairs. ...
  5. Find a Washing Buddy. ...
  6. Keep Watch Over the Free Food Shelf. ...
  7. Get Creative. ...
  8. Plan Ahead.

How can we improve hostel facilities? ›

Miloš Soro
  1. Welcome drink. When the guest arrives to your hostel you should offer them a cup of coffee or a drink. ...
  2. Free WiFi. Don't charge your guests for WiFi. ...
  3. Lockers. Lockers, lockers, lockers. ...
  4. Bathroom utilities. ...
  5. Whiteboard suggestions. ...
  6. Book them a room when they move on. ...
  7. Friendly staff. ...
  8. Hostel library.
30 Nov 2015

What are the rules of hostel? ›

Defacing walls, equipment, furniture etc., is strictly prohibited. Birthday/Other Celebrations are strictly prohibited in Hostel. Students must turn off all the electrical equipments & lights before leaving their rooms. Students are not allowed to use electric stoves, heaters etc in rooms except in designated places.

What are the advantages of using technology in hotel? ›

Technology can also enhance operational efficiency and help hotel management to reduce costs by replacing expensive human labour. In additions, it will improve customer service by facilitating smooth staff engagement and communication.

What is the conclusion of hotel management system? ›

The conclusion of this project is A Hotel management system is a computerized management system. This system keeps the records of hardware assets besides software of this organization. The proposed system will keep a track of Workers, Recidents, Accounts and generation of report regarding the present status.

What is a good algorithm example? ›

Algorithms are all around us. Common examples include: the recipe for baking a cake, the method we use to solve a long division problem, the process of doing laundry, and the functionality of a search engine are all examples of an algorithm.

What are 5 examples of algorithms? ›

Examples of Algorithms in Everyday Life
  • Tying Your Shoes. Any step-by-step process that is completed the same way every time is an algorithm. ...
  • Following a Recipe. ...
  • Classifying Objects. ...
  • Bedtime Routines. ...
  • Finding a Library Book in the Library. ...
  • Driving to or from Somewhere. ...
  • Deciding What to Eat.
18 Aug 2022

What is basic algorithm? ›

Algorithm is a step-by-step procedure, which defines a set of instructions to be executed in a certain order to get the desired output. Algorithms are generally created independent of underlying languages, i.e. an algorithm can be implemented in more than one programming language.

What is the real meaning of hostel? ›

: to sell something to or obtain something from (someone) by energetic and especially underhanded activity : swindle. hustling the suckers. an elaborate scam to hustle the elderly. : to sell or promote energetically and aggressively. hustling a new product.

What are the types of hostels? ›

Let's look at what some of the best hostels are.
  • Budget hostels. Budget hostels are perfect for students and those on a tight budget. ...
  • Party Hostels. ...
  • Activity or Adventure Hostels. ...
  • Eco-friendly hostels. ...
  • Flashpacking or Luxury Hostels. ...
  • Boutique hostels. ...
  • Quirky, weird, and out of the ordinary hostels. ...
  • Family Hostels.
1 Oct 2022

How do hostels motivate students? ›

5 ways to keep yourself motivated and happy in a hostel
  1. Bring home comforts to your new room.
  2. Explore your new surroundings.
  3. Ask for help.
  4. Take care of your health.
  5. Choose a hobby and allot time for it.
30 Nov 2020

How do you protect things in a hostel? ›

Use the Lockers

Ninety percent of the hostels we've stayed in have provided lockers -- use them! You should look to buy a padlock before you leave to travel to use with these lockers, but even if you don't have one you can usually rent padlocks from reception for a small fee.

What can we learn from hostel life? ›

Staying in Hostels Teaches You How to be Adventurous and Get Out of Your Comfort Zone. The fact that you don't get much space at all to yourself in many hostel rooms actually has a few benefits- one of which is that you are encouraged to get out of the room, explore, and venture out rather than stay in the room all day ...

Is hostel life good for students? ›

It provides a chance to develop a bond with classmates and this could lead them to be best friends for life. A student can take help from fellow classmates in studies within the hostel if he/she has any problem or doubt with any specific topic. Hostels provide students with the best atmosphere to study.

Why is it called a hostel? ›

The word hostel comes from the Latin hospitale meaning "inn, large house." Think of a hostel as an inn for students or young people. Often you can stay in one of these places for relatively little money because multiple beds are in one room and you share the bathroom with other guests.

What is hostel life for students? ›

For those looking for accommodation at an affordable price, whether staying alone or with a group of friends, hostels often fit the budget way more than the other available hotel options. Many hostels also have cost-efficient private rooms that can accommodate anywhere from two to five people.

What is online student management system? ›

A Student Management System is also known as a Student Information System (SIS). These systems work to coordinate scheduling and communications between faculty regarding students. This system exists to simplify information tracking for both parents and administrative staff.

What is online student feedback system? ›

The Student Feedback System is a management information system for education establishments to manage student data. Student Feedback Systems provide capabilities for selecting particular subject for feedback and generate the report automatically, build student details, student-related data needs in a college.

What is HMS system? ›

What is Hospital Management System (HMS) Hospital Management System is a system enabling hospitals to manage information and data related to all aspects of healthcare – processes, providers, patients, and more, which in turn ensures that processes are completed swiftly and effectively.

What are the benefits of learning management system to students? ›

10 Benefits of Using Learning Management Systems in K–12 Education
  • Support efficient distribution of class materials. ...
  • Resources in a variety of formats. ...
  • Parental access to class schedule, outlines and assessment. ...
  • Enables diverse assessment options. ...
  • Transparency on feedback. ...
  • Provides a number of communication options.

Why is online learning management system important? ›

An LMS allows you to easily incorporate quizzes, situations scenarios and other interactive elements into your training. Gamification, messaging and forums also contribute to a lively learning ecosystem. Coupled with a strong and intuitive UX design, this makes training more appealing and effective for your learners.

Do online students perform better than face to face students? ›

However, researchers reported that of the large-scale courses analyzed, two F2F sections outperformed students in online sections, and three found no significant difference.

How can students be safe online? ›

Think about your privacy – avoid sharing personal information online that could be misused by someone in real life. Check your privacy settings and make sure your account is secure. Protect your identity – pick a username that isn't your real name and a profile picture that doesn't show any personal information.

Are students online Satisfied? ›

The response rate was 97.8% for students and 86.4% for faculty. Overall satisfaction among students was 41.3% compared to 74.3% for faculty. The highest areas of satisfaction for students were communication and flexibility, whereas 92.9% of faculty were satisfied with students' enthusiasm for online learning.

What are the 2 types of hotel software? ›

Types of Hotel Management System Software
  • Cloud Software Solution. ...
  • On-Premise Hotel Solution. ...
  • Hotel Web Booking Engine Software. ...
  • Hotel Front Desk System. ...
  • Hotel Housekeeping Solution. ...
  • Hotel Channel Management System. ...
  • Hotel Billing and Invoicing Software. ...
  • Hotel Reporting and Analytics Solutions.

What are the advantages of HMS? ›

Some of the top benefits of implementing an HMS are role-based access control, data accuracy, revenue management, appointment booking, overall cost reduction, and data security.

Why is it called HMS? ›

Historically, the most significant navy was Britain's Royal Navy, which has usually used the prefix "HMS", standing for "His/Her Majesty's Ship". The Royal Navy also adopted nomenclature that reflected a vessel's type or purpose, e.g. HM Sloop.

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